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The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty addressing climate change, negotiated and signed by 154 states at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. It established a Secretariat headquartered in Bonn and entered into force on 21 March 1994. The Kyoto Protocol, which was signed in 1997 and which entered into force in 2005, was the first implementation of measures under the UNFCCC until 31 December 2020. The protocol was superseded by the Paris Agreement, which entered into force in 2016. As of 2020, the UNFCCC has 197 signatory parties. Its supreme decision-making body, the Conference of the Parties (COP), meets annually to assess progress in dealing with climate change.



The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) that human-made CO2 emissions are driving it. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. There are currently 192 parties (Canada withdrew from the protocol, effective December 2012)[4] to the Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol implemented the objective of the UNFCCC to reduce the onset of global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to "a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system" (Article 2). The Kyoto Protocol applies to the six greenhouse gases listed in Annex A: carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).[6]



The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by 193 nations in September 2015 at the UN summit, are a set of quantifiable objectives across social, economic, and environmental dimensions, all to be achieved by 2030. This 2030 Agenda on sustainable development encompasses 17 goals and 169 targets across a range of pressing global challenges from poverty and hunger, improved quality of health and education, to climate change. The SDGs resolves to “take the bold and transformative steps which are urgently needed to shift the world onto a sustainable and resilient path”


The SDGs provide a framework for Governments to have a common language and shared purpose for effective communication and policy action promote long term agenda for development at the national and sub-national level despite changing political requirement and electoral processes set priorities and commence goal-based planning facilitate the streamlining of existing and new government schemes for measuring quantitative results put in place policies, institutions, and systems necessary to generate sustained investment and growth bring together relevant stakeholders, including public-private partnerships, to address the world’s most urgent social challenges

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